From time immemorial man looking through the observation of the sky and planets like the earth and the moon to explain the weather and seasons.
With the evolution of the human species and its activities became imperative to measure time . A need through a course of thousands of years leads us to the modern watches.
For who was the first inventor and absolute clock is not currently clear now as the clock passed countless forms of development that are lost in the mists of time.
Let’s look at a succinct chronological flashback most important landmarks in the history of the clock ….
Prehistory and Antiquity
3,761 B.C. : On October 7 starts the measurement of the Jewish calendar.
3,000 B.C. : The Sumerians use their time running water as a measure of time.
2,679 B.C. : In China the first sundials. The sundial was nothing more than a post mounted on a flat divided into intervals surface and count the time under the shadow fall with the help of the sun on the surface.
2,000 B.C. : The Babylonians make first use of the system six decimal course based on the number 60 and is the precursor of the later duodecimal system in which you will base the allocation of hours.The Sumerians used the lunar calendar.
1,530 B.C. : In Egypt they first appeared sophisticated hourglasses with water. Since sundials have the great disadvantage depend from sunshine and their use can not be done after the sun set, constructed and used raw hourglass ie. A system with two vertical spaces communicated together by narrow isthmus. One of the two compartments containing water (here rather reduced and the expression “time passes”) or sand, which fall in the area located below the first means in a fixed time interval. Use Chart do over the Egyptians, the Babylonians, and of course the ancient Greeks.
1,400 B.C. : During the reign of Amenhotep III (Amenophis III), Egypt is using hourglass water. Today can be admired in the Museum of Cairo.
776 B.C. : The Greeks started the measurement of calendar year every four years under the ongoing Olympic Games.
700 B.C. : The Assiros use the lunar calendar.
585 B.C. : Thales of Miletus is speculated that the first could predict solar eclipses.
550 B.C. : His pupil Anaximander distinguished in the construction of the famous solar watches.
380 B.C. : Plato locates the Garden of Academy hourglass water pressure through the air like a faint whistling sound flute.
300 B.C. : Aristarchus of Samos finds that the Earth revolves around the sun.
263 B.C. : The first public sundial erected by PAPIRIUS CURSOR in Rome.
150 B.C. : The Ktisivios on Alexandra manufactures in Greece an automatic hourglass for inflow and outflow of water uses wheels. Use the first astrolabes, atronomiko instrument observation of the Sun and stars with large subsequent development. The invention is attributed to the Greek Hipparchus in the 2nd century. BC and is a precursor of the Antikythera Mechanism a much more sophisticated and advanced instrument dating from the 1st century. B.C.
46 B.C. : Julius Caesar introduced with the help of famous astronomers of the Julian Calendar.
Age AD and Medieval
725 : In China manufactured by HSING and LIAN Ling TSAN the first clock escapement = escape system.
1090 : The SU SUNG manufactures for Khai-Sung, Sung capital of the Kingdom hourglass one astronomical gear.
1168 : Damascus placed the famous hourglass in East Gate of the city.
1170 : Listed in Cologne profession “Urluge”.
1284 : The first mechanical clock works great in the Cathedral of Exeter (England).
1288 : The Westminster Hall (London) acquires mechanical Clock Tower.
1300 : Begins a period in which large mechanical clocks with gears made continuously and adorn churches, town halls and towers.
1509 : PETER HENLEIN manufactures first Nuremberg “portable” pocket watches.
1525 : Showing the first clocks and wall clocks follow.
1550 : Manufacture of watches pocket oval known as the “Nuremberg eggs’.
1555 : In Geneva pocket watches appear with mobile figures.
1573 : Introduced for the first time the minute hand.
1582 : Introduced the Gregorian Calendar.
1584 : The JOST BUERGI manufactures in Kassel the first accurate clocks.
1600 : Published two laws of Kepler, the third will follow 1619.
1638 : The GALILEO GALILEI publishes laws for the pendulum.
Baroque & Rococo
1656 : The CHRISTIAN HUYGENS describes the construction of an improved pendulum hours, minutes and seconds.
1675 : Form cycloid gear is recognized as the most suitable for watches. An Observatory of Greenwich (England) from 1844 that would define the zero meridian.
1680 : The growing accuracy of the outstanding longer impose the minute hand in the middle of the plate-dial watches.
1680 : German BECHER manufactures a barometric clock.
1681 : DANIEL JEAN RICHARD manufactures pocket watches in Neuenburger Jura (Switzerland). From here you will start later and the world famous Swiss Watch making industry dominant.
1690 : JACOB ENDERLEIN manufactures pocket watches with autonomy mechanism 8 days.
1695 : THOMAS TOMPION (London) invents the cylinder escapement of pocket watches.
1724 : French Watchmaker JEAN BAPTISTE DUTERTRE manufactures Duplex watch escapement (the details of which had been described in 1690 by Dr. ROBERT HOOKE).
1730 : The FRANZ ANTON KETTERER by Schoenwald (in Black Forest Schwarzwald ) manufactures the first Cuckoo clock.
1740 : The gold pocket watches are in fashion.
1741 : JOHN HARRISON and completes his third marine timekeeper.
1755 : JEAN ROMILLY manufactures pocket watches in Paris’ 8 days | », with escapement one oscillation per second.
1760 : THOMAS MUDGE (London) invents the free anchor escapement.
1760 : FERDINAND BERTHOUD and PIERRE LE ROY (Paris) publish their research for Chronometer escapement.
1761 : FERDINAND BERTHOUD (Paris) completes the first French Marine chronometer. While JOHN HARRISON (London) award for the fourth marine timekeeper of the English Parliament.
1764 : JOHN ARNOLD (London) manufactures the cylinder of the cylinder escapement from authentic ruby.
1766 : PIERRE LE ROY (Paris) improves the mechanism HARRISON.The JACQUES FREDERIC HOURIET (Le Locle) manufactures spherical spiral.
1720 : GEORGE GRAHAM improves the mechanism of THOMAS TOMPION becoming known as a cylinder escapement.
1770 : The AL PERRELET (Switzerland) puts automatic mechanisms in pocket watches that would later improved by BREGUET.
1775 : JOHN ARNOLD manufactures cylindrical spiral.
1777 : JEAN MOISE POUZAIT invents Seconde morte, in which the seconds hand “jumps” one position per second.
1782 : JOHN ARNOLD manufactures a Chronometer escapement and patented.
1800 : ABRAHAM LOUlS BREGUET (Paris) uses first twisted spiral.
1801 : ABRAHAM LOUlS BREGUET invents Tourbillon.
1805 : The mechanism of protection from knocks and bumps made possible by ABRAHAM LOUlS BREGUET through the “parachute” as he calls the construction.
1810 : The Danish LOUIS URBAN JUERGENSEN improves cylinder escapement.
1815 : RAMIS builds the first electric clock.
1831 : French JOSEPH WINNERL displays Seconde rattrapante.
1845 : FERDINAND ADOLF LANGE founds in the city Glashuette, in Dresden, a precision watchmaking factory.
1860 : It has already began the industrialized production in watchmaking industry and as result reduced labor. Thus, by manually made only the maintenance and repairs.
1867 : French GUILMETIN invents free pendulum Pendule balancier libre.
1878 : Foundation of the German Watchmaking School in Glashuette in 1951 which after becomes part of the School of Engineering.
1916 : In Ireland invented the summer time.
1921 : Used the first quartz crystals.
1927 : In America works the first watch Quartz. O Warren A. Marrison the manufactures as “Crystal Clock” at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York.
1930 : Begins industrialized mass production of watches forever leaving behind the era where every watch was an absolutely unique and special piece.1948 : The American Physicists WALTER HOUSER BRATTAIN and JOHN BARDEEN invent the transistors, that will put the foundations for later electronic watches.
1952 : The first electronic watches appear.
1969 : Through the art of the Low-Power Quartz watches consume less power and longer batteries last 1 year .